What is NAD?
Full name: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, abbreviated as coenzyme I.
The function of NAD+is like a small train. It transports high-energy electron packets from one location in the cell to another location. When not carrying an electronic bag, it is called NAD. When it is loaded with a package of electrons, it is called NADH
Our body is composed of approximately 37 trillion cells. Cells must complete a large amount of work. Each of our 37 trillion cells relies on the continuous operation of NAD+.
The daily physiological stress, including excessive drinking, excessive ultraviolet radiation, insufficient sleep, overeating, infection, and sedentary lifestyles, is actually related to a decrease in NAD+levels.
The decrease in NAD+levels is also related to a large number of disease states. In addition, in all organisms studied so far, from single-celled yeast to mice to humans, studies have shown that NAD+levels decrease with age.
Enhance the effect of NAD+on the human body
① Improve cellular aging
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are involved in the natural aging process of cells or the body. Aging, oxidative stress, and DNA damage can all lead to a decrease in tissue NAD+levels, and a decrease in NAD+levels may exacerbate these causes. Therefore, a decrease in NAD+levels is a result of cellular aging.
② Protecting the myocardium
NAD+affects mitochondrial redox process, improves energy metabolism, and thus improves cardiac diastolic function. Supplementing NAD+to increase SIRT3 activity can reduce acetylation levels and improve cardiac function.
③ Intervention in neurodegenerative diseases
NAD+inhibits the production of ROS by ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase in permeable mitochondria, preventing oxidation. NAD+and its key synthetic enzyme NAMPT can resist oxidative stress and play a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases.
④ Activate longevity protein
NAD+can stimulate all seven long-lived proteins (Sirtuins1-7) in the living human body, playing an important role in cell stress resistance, energy metabolism, prevention of cell mutation, cell apoptosis, and aging processes.
According to relevant data, by the age of 60, the level of NAD+in our body is only a quarter of that at the age of 30. Only when sufficient NAD+is maintained in the body can the self repair ability of genes be maintained, thereby inhibiting aging.
⑤ Regulate metabolism and circadian rhythm
NAD+is synthesized throughout the body in the way of circadian rhythm oscillation, promoting the activation of sirtuin in the circadian rhythm schedule and mitochondrial metabolism, such as the oxidation of fatty acid 39.
Therefore, with the growth of age, any decline in the central and peripheral circadian rhythm function will reduce metabolism and affect health.
How to supplement NAD+?
Because the molecular weight of NAD+is too large, cells cannot directly ingest it. Therefore, people usually supplement the precursor of NAD+. The most commonly used ones include NMN（β- Nicotinamide Mononucleotide）and NR (Nicotinamide Ribose)
As a direct precursor of the important coenzyme NAD+in the human body, NMN can quickly convert into NAD+after entering the body, compensating for the decline in NAD+content caused by aging. NMN itself is a substance contained in the human body, present in breast milk and food, such as edamame and broccoli, but in very low amounts (0.25-1.88 milligrams per 100 grams). Raw beef and shrimp also contain very small amounts (0.06-0.42 milligrams per 100 grams) of NMN components. So in order to improve NMN, it is necessary to directly supplement it from the outside world.
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